Toward urban frameworks accommodating change in urban cultural landscapes

His biggest and best known work in Boston was known as The Fens, and his work at the Biltmore Estate in western North Carolina laid the groundwork for the creation of modern forest landscapes.There Olmsted convinced the wealthy industrialist George Vanderbilt to forgo the creation of a large park-like landscape and instead hire the young forester Gifford Pinchot to implement reforestation protocols across a huge region that had been subjected to massive deforestation.Much of the former estate now forms the Pisgah National Forest.For Olmsted the distinction went beyond names–his landscape interventions were not simply themed parks but in fact were fundamentally different landscape types that responded to different contexts and performed specific social and environmental functions .Of these landscape types, park is by far the most promiscuous.The search for an appropriate response to contemporary public landscape issues often results in an effort to make parks do more.In some instances these competing urban agendas have been resolved with a certain grace.

The Nebraska National Forest: this aberrant landscape of evergreens in the sandhills of Nebraska was established in 1902 as an experiment to see if forests could be created in the treeless areas of the Great Plains for use as a national timber reserve.

We propose that landscape architecture should work to adapt the multiple-use mandate of the US Forest Service to contemporary city conditions.

If urban forests are understood as a multiple-use landscape type operating locally at a variety scales, they may present an alternative for negotiating some of the issues facing today’s cities.

These were intended to contrast the filthy, disease-ridden, ever-expanding industrial city with a sanitized view of the woodlands and fields that it replaced.

Through this reconstruction parks became a public form of the aristocratic pleasure ground.